When seas and oceans take 70% of the earth’s surface, forests take the rest of the portion. An estimate of 3 trillion trees exists in this world, which includes tropical, temperate and boreal forests. Some of them are dense, while others are evenly populated. Forests play a significant role in balancing our ecological system. It is a perfect place for both flora and fauna to exist. How many types of forest resources are there? In this article, we shall be seeing the different types of forests with pictures and their names.
Classifications of Forest:
Classification of forest in the world is done based on the leafing strategy, seasonality, climatic conditions, geographical location and economic strategy.
- Climate: On the basis of climate, forests are classified into temperate forests, boreal forests, tropical forests, subtropical forests, rain forest, monsoon forests and dry forests.
- Seasonality: Based on seasonality, forests are divided into deciduous and evergreen forests.
- Geographically: Forests based on geographical location can be classified into Northern and Southern forests.
- Leafing: This includes broad-leaved forests, needle-leaved forests, conifer forests, hardwood and softwoods.
Different Types of Forests with Their Names and Pictures:
Here is the list of top 14 different types of forests in the world with their names and pictures.
1. Moist Deciduous Forest:
Deciduous forests are one of the names of forests in India. These are trees that shed their leaves during autumn and regrow leaves in the spring. We can find these tropical moist deciduous forests mainly in the Western Ghats, Chota Nagpur plateau and Siwaliks of Himalayas. These types of forest ecosystem receive rainfall between 100 to 200cms. Teak is one of the most widely seen tropical monsoon forest. Other than teak, sandalwood and shisham can also be seen under this category.
2. Dry Deciduous Forest:
Another name in the list of different kinds of forests is the tropical dry deciduous forest. It is also known as South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forest. You can see these forest trees in Gangal plain, the Himalayas, Thar and the Western Ghats. These are the tropical deciduous forests in India that receive an annual rainfall of 900 – 1500mm, which is comparatively low than other forest types. Dry deciduous forests are characterized by 5 – 6 dry months with low nutrients in soil.
3. Wet Evergreen Forest:
Among the list of names of forests in the world comes the wet evergreen forest. We can find these forests in the Southern Western Ghats, north Eastern India and plains of West Bengal. The trees coming under this type include oak, coniferous and holly. Tropical evergreen forest or the tropical rain forest receives more than 234cms of rainfall with an average monthly temperature of 18 degrees or more in the coldest months. You can see a variety of tree species in this forest which includes paan, aini, rosewood and telsur.
4. Semi Evergreen Forest:
A semi evergreen forest is a mix of deciduous and evergreen trees that are grown in both tropical and subtropical climate. The trees of semi-evergreen forest will have broad-leaved trees. They are generally grown in dry climates. Upon rainfall, the trees flourish with thick natural green leaves. In India, the North Eastern India, Southern Bhutan and Northern Myanmar and Brahmaputra valley are the best places to grow these forests. Some of the commonly seen tree species in this type of forest include nutmegs, cashews, mahogany, magnolias and bamboos.
5. Tropical Scrub Forest:
There are different types of forests with names and pictures. One among them is the tropical scrub forest. The Tropical scrub forest is one of the ecosystems that make a dry land. A Tropical scrub forest is characterized by low lying dense under bush. Major part of the forest lies as desert with heavy winds, poor drainage and low soil quality. Tropical scrub forest is also known as chaparral in California, this type of forest is widely grown in southern United States, Mediterranean coastline, interiors of Australia and Central Africa.
6. Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest:
Tropical dry evergreen forest is one of the different forests in India that are native to South Eastern India. It lies in the Eastern Tamil Naidu, part of Puducherry and south eastern Andhra Pradesh. The tropical dry evergreen forest is a domestic forest of the coastal seaboard of South East India. The forest is also characterized by its rich botanical wealth and its ability to withstand the environmental conditions that are hazardous to the environment.
7. Temperate Coniferous Forest:
Temperate Coniferous forests are different types of forest which nothing but coniferous trees that grow in temperate climate conditions with warm summer and cold winter. In India temperate coniferous forests are grown in the Eastern Himalayas. Animals like deer and elk can be seen in this forest. These are needle-leaved or scale-leaved trees that are found in areas having long winters and moderate to high annual rainfall. We can commonly see coniferous trees like spruce, pine, juniper and firs in temperate coniferous forests.
8. Temperate Deciduous Forest:
A Temperate deciduous forest is also known as temperate broad-leaf forests. Deciduous forests consist of trees whose leaves fall every year. Temperate deciduous forests have 4 distinct seasons – summer, winter, spring and fall. You can see these temperate deciduous forest widely in Northern America, Western Europe, East Asia, Central Europe , South Sweden, Denmark and Southern Norway. Some of the commonly grown tree species in temperate deciduous forest include maple, oaks, beeches, shrubs and perennial herbs.
9. Montane Wet Temperate Forest:
Montane wet temperate forests are nothing but temperate wet forests that are grown in mountains. These biomes are strongly affected by climatic conditions which mean that the climate gets more colder as the height increases. Montane wet temperate forests have large growing trees that reach up to 1800 to 3000 m above sea level. The temperature goes down to 11 degrees and the average humidity is over 80 percent. In India, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, Eastern Himalayas, West Bengal, Sikkim, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh are the common places to grow these motane widely.
10. Temperate Needle leaf Forest:
Temperate needle leaf forests are native to higher latitude regions of Northern Hemisphere. The soil condition is relatively poor and the temperature will be preferably warm in this forest. The forest is rich in coniferous trees that include spruce, pines, cedars, cypress, hemlocks etc. Needle leaf forests grow mainly in long cold winters, hence found commonly outside India. The leaves of these trees will be long with thin waxy needles. The wax gives them protection from chilling weather.
11. Freshwater Swamp Forest:
A freshwater swamp forest is one among the list of different forests in the world. One of the peculiar features of this forest is that you can see freshwater source. We can normally can see these in the lower reaches of rivers and lakes. This kind of forest survives in all climate zones from tropical to boreal. Animals like fish, shrimp, frogs, turtles, and birds all live in this habitat. Freshwater Swamp Forest is also a place to grow many flowering plants with small blooms. These include mosses.
12. Montane Moist Temperate Forest:
Montane moist temperate forests grow in tropical climate conditions. Trees grown in montane moist temperate forest are adapted to low temperature and high radiation levels as their elevation is comparatively high than other kinds of forests. Also, the trees of montane moist temperate forest have wide spread trees with twiggy branches and leaves of different colours. Small plants like ferns and lichens grow well in this type of forest. In India, we can see montane temperate moist forest in South Western Ghats that range from Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
13. Montane Dry Temperate Forest:
Apart from moist and wet climate conditions, there are forests in mountains that survive in dry climate. One such name of forests in the world is the montane dry temperate forest. Animals, birds and plants that live in this ecosystem adapts to this harsh climate. Moreover, chances of finding source of water in this forest will be very less. The temperature will be warm throughout the year except for in monsoon season.
14. Littoral and Swamp Forest:
Littoral and swamp forests might sound unfamiliar but actually, it is a wetland forest. In simple terms, littoral zone is a part of a lake, sea or river that is close to the shore. The reservoirs of Deccan Plateau, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Eastern coast deltas, rivers of Ladakh and Kashmir and Gulf of Kutch are the places to grow widely these forest. The beach forests (where the temperature will be moderate), tidal forests (also known as mangrove forests) and fresh water swamp forests are the other classification of the littoral forest.
Forests can help balance the ecological system of the earth. Many of the world’s best medicines come from forests for treating severe health conditions. Every tree that is grown in these forest types has their own unique medicinal value. In this modern era, there has been several threats to forests and wildlife associated with it. Learning to preserve them and save them for our future is the best thing we can do today.