There are as many as 22000 fish species in the world, and they are majorly categorized into 3 groups like jaw-less fish, bony fish and cartilaginous fish. Further, all types of fish are characterized by no limbs and only have a skull with a single backbone. Other tiny bones mostly form their gills. Their body temperatures easily acclimate to the change in water temperature. They interact one another using acoustic signals. Most types of fish have a streamlined body that helps them to swim effectively using their fins. They breathe through their gills and use their scales to safeguard them. Most fish are also colour-blind. Even though there are many types of fish in the world, we can see only a few species of them as they are aquatic animals.
Different Types of Fish Species:
Let’s have a quick view about top 25 different types of fishes with names and pictures.
1. Ocean Sunfish:
Ocean Sunfish is a type of sea fish which is known routinely sunbaths at the surface of the water; and hence the name. The frontal view of this kind of fish looks long an oval because the body of the fish is flattened laterally. Of all the bony fish, the this species of fish is the heaviest with the weight range between 247 to 1000 kgs. They usually grow up to 1.8 meters and 2.5 meters of length fin-to-fin.
The Blobfish is a deep sea inhabitant that can survive in both fresh water and salt water. This kind of fish is pinkish in colour and grow not more than 30 cm in length and about 80 kgs. The absence of both bones and teeth prohibits them to actively hunt for food. They have a gelatinous skin and have a body density lesser than that of water, allowing it to effortlessly float above the sea floor. The gelatinous skin has acid like feature making it poisonous to consume. This different kinds of fishes are an endangered species mainly due to extremely slow rate of reproduction and deep-sea trawling, with just 420 left in the planet. They live 3000-4000 feet, since below the ocean surface a very high-pressure atmosphere.
3. Chitala Chitala:
Chitala Chitala is a type of freshwater fish largely breaded in India. They are also known as Clown Knife fish and also as the Indian Featherback. They grow to a maximum length of 122 cm but on an average grow up to 75 cm. This type of Indian fish is the only species where juveniles and the adults are usually silver in colour and have gold and silver stripes all along their back. They have an elongated anal-fin which gives an appearance of a humped back. An overall look of the fish gives a feather like structure hence the name.
4. Great White Shark:
The Great White Shark is a kind of saltwater fish which is a species of Mackerel Shark. They grow from around 4 meters to 6 meters in length and reach almost 1,900 kgs of weight. This type of fish usually resides in the pelagic zone along with other large bony fish. This type of species has a rather strong, large and pointed nose. The females of this species are usually larger than the males. They are gifted with the ability to detect electromagnetic field radiated by the other animal’s movement.
The Goat fish is a species of Saltwater fish. They have two chin barbels that aid in exploring the sand or holes in the bottom of the waters for food. They have forked tails and a long body. This type of species has a gifted ability to change colour so as to blend with the surroundings to avoid being a prey to other fish. This kind of fish originally possesses bright colours.
6. Northern Pike:
The Northern Pike is simply called Pike in most places. This type of fish is a species of carnivorous fish that are found in both freshwater and brackish waters. They grow up to 40-55 cm in length and weigh around 28.4 kgs. They are usually olive green in colour which slowly shades to yellow and white along the tummy. When it comes to food this type of fish is usually very aggressive in nature, where they develop cannibalism when there is a food scarcity.
7. Iridescent Shark:
Iridescent Shark is a freshwater species that are found and largely cultivated in the Mekong Basin and Chao Phraya river. They are a species of shark catfish promoted under the name Swai in the market. They are grey n colour with darker or black fins. This type of fish can grow up to 130 cm and weigh about 44 kgs. As they age, they lose their teeth and hence choose to be more vegetarians eaters. It is almost an endangered species.
8. Macrognathus Aral:
Macrognathus Aral is a type of fresh water fish which is also known as one-striped spiny eel. Its colour varies from olive green to light brown and has a single band passing through each flank horizontally. These fishes grow up to 15 cm in length and possess an eel like structure with string fin spines. They are mostly peaceful fish and show an outgoing behaviour. They don’t posses any threat to other inmates in the tank and are more likely to get along well.
9. Freckled Porcupine Fish:
The freckled porcupine fish, is a type of salt water fish, also known as Long-Spined Porcupine Fish are usually found in warm temperature marine waters. They have long flexible spikes all over their head and body. This species can grow up to 35-50 cms in length. It is also famous for its medicinal use in china. This fish has that incredible talent to inflate itself when threaten by just swallowing air or water. They do this as a defence against predators. Their spines also become sharper as they bloat up keeping the predators far from them.
10. European Perch:
The European Perch is a type of freshwater species and are known to be Finland’s National Fish. This kind of species live up to 22 year of age. Their length varies greatly depending on the water body; but are usually around 50-60 cm in length and can weigh around 2.5 -3 kgs. They are green in colour with red or orange colour in the lower fins. They also display around 5-8 dark vertical bars on the sides and as they grow a hump raises amid its head and dorsal fin.
11. Yellow Boxfish:
The Yellow Boxfish is a type of saltwater fish which is yellow in colour and has a lean boxed shaped body, hence the name. It is challenging to maintain this type of fish as they prefer isolation and require a minimum of 125 gallons in the tank. The yellow boxfish releases toxic proteins, known as ostracitoxin from their skin when injured or threatened. When they are young, their colour is bright yellow with brown spots and as they age the yellow turns brownish. They grow to a maximum of 50 cm in length.
12. Wels Catfish:
The Wels Catfish is a type of fresh water fish that has broad flat head and wide mouth. They do not have scales on their skin and live for at least 50 years. This kind of fish mostly depends on smell and sounds to catch a prey but also have the advantage of night vision. Since they do not have scales, their skin is very slimy and their colour usually depends on the environment. It is black in clear water and will attain a green-brown look in muddy water. This type of fish is the largest fresh water fish which grows up to 3 meters long and can weigh over 200-250 kgs.
Turbot is a species of Flat fish which is a Salt water fish. This type of fish lives at the bottom of the shallow waters of sea or lake. They are left-sided fish having both their eyes on the left with no scales on the body. Their upper body is olive green and lower body is white. They have a disproportionate body and grow up to 100 cm long and weigh around 25 kgs. They are meatier on the top and are one of the most expensive consumable fish for its subtle flavour.
14. Suckermouth Catfish:
The suckermouth catfish is also known as ‘common pleco’. It is a fresh water fish and very popular for aquarium trade in Singapore and Hong Kong; not really common in food trade. It grows to a length of 28-50 cm. Its sucker-like mouth allows it to stick to a surface and also hold and scrape the food. It is dark in colour and mostly found feeding at the bottom of the tank. They are also widely purchased as they neatly clean the algae from the fish tanks.
Pacu is a type of Fresh water fish which are closely related to the Piranha; although both differ in their jaw alignment. These fishes grow up to 1.08 meters in length and weigh around 40 kgs. They have a serrated keel that runs across their belly hence the name “Serrasalmidae” which originally means “serrated salmon family”. They are also known to have human like teeth and can survive even in waters with low levels of oxygen. This type of fish in India has been found in waters of Godavari river near Andra Pradesh.
16. European Eel:
The European Eel is a species of fish that looks more like a snake for its long-cylindrical shaped body. They are a freshwater fish and are moved to saltwater for cultivation. They can grow up to 60-80 cm and in rare cases can also reach up to 1.5 meters of length. Further, they are a highly endangered species with a decline of almost 90% in the recent years. These fishes are usually silver in colour but are transparent when young.
17. Japanese Rice Fish:
The Japanese Rice Fish are also called Medaka. They are the type of species that are found in both freshwater and saltwater. It is popularly marketed as an Aquarium because of its pleasant appearance. These kinds of fish grow up to 3.6 cm in length and are usually creamy white to Yellowish is colour. In rare cases, this kind of fish can also be found in orange colour. They are usually found in shallow and flooded rice paddies.
18. Giant Devil Catfish:
Giant devil Catfish is also known as and ‘Sand Shark’. This kind of fish is a type of fresh water fish that can grow up to 2 meters in length and can weigh as much as 90 kgs which makes them unfit for a home aquarium. Due to their large structure; they are maintained well in bigger tanks. This species is usually found in large rivers, even with strong currents. It has very fibrous flesh which decays easily; and yet they are fished for food at many places.
19. Siamese Fighting Fish:
The Siamese Fighting Fish is a type of fresh water fish commonly known as “bettas”. They are famed as very aggressive in nature and often attack each-other, hence are mostly kept in different tanks. Their length is about 2.6 inches and has short fins. The Siamese fighting fish are usually found in a combination of dull green; brown and grey colour; however, they exhibit bold colours when they get anxious. This kind of fish is popular as an aquarium fish but the IUCN has rated them as endangered species due to pollution and habitat deconstruction. They feed on the larvae of mosquitoes and other water-bound insects.
20. Hara Jerdoni:
The Hara Jerdoni is also famously known as Anchor catfish because of its long, lean structure and curved pectoral fins that bear a resemblance to an anchor. Further, they are very calm and peaceful in nature ideal for small aquariums. They grow upto a maximum of 4 cm and are usually found at the bottom of the tank. They are usually brown or grey in colour and can easily camouflage with their surroundings. This kind of fish is usually quiet and timid and can be seen only with 3-4 of their own mates.
21. Gold Fish:
The Gold Fish is a type of fresh water fish universally maintained in aquariums. These are very small in size and come in variety of colour combinations of white, orange, yellow and red. They have a memory that’s lasts for at least 3 months and can easily distinguish between their owner and a stranger. They are very friendly and social with the owner and learns to communicate for food etc. they can also differentiate between various shapes, sounds and colours. In the wild this kind of fish can live as long as 25 years.
22. Catla Catla:
Catla fish is a type of fresh water fish widespread all over India and is commercially farmed for consumption. This type of fish in India is famously called ‘Bhakura’. The Catla fish is short with a broad head and grow up to 182 cms and weigh around 38 kgs. They have a protruding lower jaw and a large inverted mouth. This species of fish has a grey colour on the back and white abdomen. They are cultivated widely for consumption and has a large market in India and parts of South Asia
23. Labeo Rohita(Rohu):
Labeo Rohita, which is well known as Rohu fish is a type of fresh water fish in India. It is a widespread species which is cultured in captivity all over India and neighbouring countries. It grows up to 35-45 cm in length and weighs not m ore than 45 kgs. This type of Indian fish species is large and is silver in colour with noticeably curved head. Rohu is a vital species cultivated in carp poly culture systems along with Catla Catla and Mrigal.
24. Sebastiscus Marmoratus:
The Sebastiscus Marmoratus is a species of Rockfish. They are Saltwater fish which have poisonous spines. They generally live at the Benthic Zone; which is at the lowest level of the ocean or sea. This type of species lives up to around 100-200 years of age. Most number of Rockfish have been found at the coast of South California with almost 56 species existing. They grow up to maximum size of 30 cm long and are commercial business in Japan.
25. Atlantic Salmon:
Atlantic Salmon is a type of freshwater fish which is widely cultivated for commercial trading. They most commonly grow up to 71-76 cm in length and weigh around 3.6-5.4 kgs. They usually give a silver-blue colour as an adult and usually have black spots above the lateral line. This type of fish is aggressive in nature and most commonly attack other fish. Most off the Atlantic Salmon are farm-raised. They are an endangered species and hence fishing for them is forbidden.
Finally, given are 25 types of fish varieties which most of us do not know. These fishes are present in different regions all around the world and few of them also are under threat of getting extinct. While we see most of them in one or other occasion, most of us do not know the species and prominence attached to them. Hope this article has added new knowledge to you today.
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